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The pulmonary valve is located at the base of the pulmonary artery.
This has three cusps which are not attached to any papillary muscles.
Oxygenated blood then returns to the left atrium, passes through the left ventricle and is pumped out through the aorta to the systemic circulation−where the oxygen is used and metabolized to carbon dioxide.
Cardiovascular diseases frequently do not have symptoms or may cause chest pain or shortness of breath.
The interatrial septum separates the atria and the interventricular septum separates the ventricles.
The mitral valve lies between the left atrium and left ventricle.
Two additional semilunar valves sit at the exit of each of the ventricles.The walls of the right ventricle are lined with trabeculae carneae, ridges of cardiac muscle covered by endocardium.In addition to these muscular ridges, a band of cardiac muscle, also covered by endocardium, known as the moderator band reinforces the thin walls of the right ventricle and plays a crucial role in cardiac conduction.When the ventricle relaxes blood flows back into the ventricle from the artery and this flow of blood fills the pocket-like valve, pressing against the cusps which close to seal the valve.The semilunar aortic valve is at the base of the aorta and also is not attached to papillary muscles.